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Martin Luther King was born on the fifteenth of January 1929 in Atlanta. It comes from a pastors' family and benefits from a rather favorable environment. His father was the minister of the Ebenezer Baptist Church.
In 1954 he becomes pastor baptist and practises to Montgomery, in Alabama.
In 1955, he becomes leader of the movement of support of Rosa Parks stopped by the police to have refused to give up his place in a white in a bus, and makes an appeal to the boycott of the company of buses of the city. In spite of threats, the boycott will last one year until the Supreme Court gives fault to the company of buses. Constitution abolishes laws imposing segregation in transport.
The media impact of this victory leads Martin Luther King founded the SCLC (conference of Christian leaders in the south) with other prominent black and he become president. An advocate of nonviolence, he decided to extend the struggle for black civil rights to all United States.
In 1963, it is at the head of big campaigns for civil rights, right to vote of the Blacks, the end of segregation, better education. It is stopped again and again. In the speech of August 28th, 1963, ' I have a dream ', in front of 250000 persons, he makes an appeal for a country where all men will share the same rights in justice and peace.
In 1964, Martin Luther King receives the Nobel prize of Peace, he's the youngest laureate. Most of rights for which he campaign are voted as rights with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 et le Voting Rights Act of 1965.
However the young Blacks of the ghettoes of the big cities North accept not violence hardly and rebel.
Martin Luther King sees her influence diminishing.
After his successes in the south of the United States, Martin Luther King settles in Chicago in 1966 and tries to extend movement in the north of the country. The demonstrations which he organizes in Chicago provoke an even more violent reaction than in the south.
Martin Luther King was assassinated by a white segregationist on April 4th, 1968 in Memphis while he supported a strike of garbage collectors.